Tehran Conference and the Beginning of the Cold War

Background:
  • World War II messed up international relations; there is much to be settled
  • Surprise - Stalin made a non-aggression pact with Hitler, 1939 (5)
  • Hitler attacks Russia 1941, Stalin scrambles to find support in Western Allied forces (5)

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The Conference: What was it?
  • Joseph Stalin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (called “The Big Three”) meet in Tehran, Iran in November of 1943 (6)
  • Called to order by FDR (3)
  • One of two Wartime Meetings of major Allied leaders (3)
  • Disscussed military strategy, postwar settlements, and Germany's repercussions (3)
  • Churchill and Roosevelt were of similar minds (The West), wanted to project united front in dealing with Stalin's previous Soviet propaganda (5)


In Context: Who is Who?
  • Stalin --> Communism --> Napoleon
  • FDR and Churchill --> Western Ideals --> Fredericks and Pilkington




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Clashing Ideologies
  • U.S. wary of Soviet communism (4)
  • "Postwar Soviet expansionism in Eastern Europe fueled many Americans’ fears of a Russian plan to control the world." (4)
  • Soviet Union and non- communist west, “locked in a prolonged 'Cold War', clash over communist aggression and expansion in Asia, South America and Eastern Europe (1)
  • U.S. calls for strategy of "containment" against Soviet Union (4)
  • Cold War escalates into "arms race" between U.S. and Soviet Union, heightening stakes and introducing atomic weapons into the mix (4)
  • Underlying tension between U.S. and Soviet Union throughout Cold War


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How The Cold War Began
  • Stemmed from U.S. decision to protect Iran from Soviet Union (2)
  • Soviets complicate matters by refusing to withdraw out of Iran within 6 months of armistice in Europe (2)
  • Refuse to abide by Potsdam agreement stating Germany should be treated as equal economic unit (2)
  • Leads to Western Allies eventually consolidating non Soviet zones (2)
  • “The climax came when the Greek government, controlling only a “shrunken area” around Athens, appealed for international help…” (2)
  • Soviet Union also upset over U.S.'s delayed entry into World War II, which helped to lead to the death of tens of
    millions of Russians (4)


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Drawing Parallels
Tehran Conference/ Cold War
Examples from Animal Farm
The Soviet Union attempts to expand its influence after World War II
leading to conflict with the U.S.
"The pigeons who were sent out to spread tidings of the Rebellion..."
( pg. 67). This is an example Napoleon attempting to spread his influence
and the ways of Animalism (communism) to other farms. (7)
The Soviet Union's system of communism directly clashes with the
U.S.'s own political ideals leading to inevitable conflict.
"These three had elaborated old Major's teachings into a complete system
of thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism." (7)
The Cold War never came to armed confrontation but was instead
characterized by an underlying tension between the two countries.
"At first they pretended to laugh and scorn the idea of animals managing
a farm for themselves" (pg. 27). (7)
One of the U.S.'s major concerns during the Cold War was the
spread of communism.
"Nevertheless they were both thoroughly frightened by the rebellion on Animal
Farm and very anxious to prevent their own animals from learning too much about
it" (pg. 26-27). (7)
Upheaval and tension between Western ideals versus Eastern
(predominantly Soviet)
"There were shoutings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious
denials" (pg. 97). (7)
Leaders wish to project peaceful correspondance and a united front
among allied forces.
Mr. Pilkington's toast in the Animal Farm farmhouse: "...it was a source of great
satisfaction... to feel that a long period of mistrust and misunderstanding had
now come to an end" (pp. 93-94). (7)
Alliance between Russia and the West would not work, as both sides
of agreement had loopholes where leaders had own interests in
mind. (postwar planning, Soviet takeover of Eastern europe)
"The source of the trouble appeared to be that Napoleon and Mr. Pilkington had
each played an ace of spades simultaneously" (pg. 97). (7)
Stalin could only be trusted precariously.
"For a long time there had been rumors - circulated, he had reason to think, by
some malignant enemy..." (pg. 95). (7)

References
  1. Dewdney, John. (2012). Soviet Union. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/soviet-union
  2. Harlan. (2006, October 21). The Cold War. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/research/cold-war/symposium/cleveland.html
  3. Hickman, K. (2012). World war ii: Tehran conference. Retrieved from: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/militarystrategies/p/tehran.htm
  4. History. (2012) Cold War. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war
  5. Immell, M. (2010) Perspectives on Modern World History; The Dissolution of the Soviet Union. 1st ed. Detroit: Gale, Cengage Learning Green Haven Press.
  6. Kreis, S. (2009). “Lecture 14: The origins of the cold war”. Retrieved from: http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture14.html
  7. Orwell, G. (1997). Animal Farm. U.S.: McDougal Littell
  8. Safra, J. (2002) Britannica, Micropedia, Ready Reference. 15 ed. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.