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"The aim of the Soviet operation was to prop up their new, but faltering client state...."(1)

LINKS:

ARTICLE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTS FROM INVASION:

http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB57/us8.pdf









Beginning:

Afghanistan 1000 Afghani note of Mohammad Daoud Khan 1973-1978
Afghanistan 1000 Afghani note of Mohammad Daoud Khan 1973-1978

General Mohammad Daud




1953

  • Becomes prime minister

  • Turned to Soviets for assistance

    • Economic

    • Military

1963

  • Forced to resign as prime minister

1973

  • Overthrew Mohammad Zahir Shah's monarchy

  • Declares Republic

  • Became president

1978

    • Killed by People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan

      • Led by Nur Mohammad Taraki

      • Supported by the Soviet Union

Hafizullah Amin
Hafizullah Amin
Nur Mohammed Taraki
Nur Mohammed Taraki


1979


  • Power struggle

    • Hafizullah Amin

    • Nur Mohammed Taraki





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Russian Police Badge

WHAT HAPPENED?

CIVIL WAR: Hafizullah Amin vs. Mujahideen (one of many power struggles)


  • Thousands of Afghanistan Muslims joined the Mujahideen - "guerilla force on a holy mission for Allah" (2). The ultimate goal of the Mujahideen was to overthrow of the Amin government.

  • "The Communist quarrels [between leaders] both embarrassed the Soviets and threatened to destabilize the Afghan regime in the face of growing Muslim resistance." (1)



INVASION: December 1979

  • December 25th, "Russian paratroopers landed in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan" (2).

  • December 27th, Amin was shot by the Russians and he was replaced by Babrak Karmal (a member of KGB, Soviet Union's National Security).

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USSR Invasion routes and territory
==


HOW IT ENDED?

"THE SOVIET'S VIETNAM"




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USSR's withdrawal from Afghanistan

LOSS OF POWER:

Babrak Karmal loses control over the Afghans

  • Foreign Countries funded the war by supplying weaponry and support to Afghanistan United State, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and other Muslim countries

  • Muslim resistance increased dramatically throughout the decade

  • More than 2,000 Afghans fled to Pakistan and Iran






TRANSFER OF BURDEN:

  • "Transfer the burden of fighting the mujahideen to the Afghan armed forces" (4) Soviets began giving DRA (Democratic Republic of Afghanistan) artillery to fend off Mujahideen.



WITHDRAWAL:

USSR limited offensive operations, and "were content to merely defend against mujahideen raids" (5)

  • May 15, 1988 - August 1988: First Withdrawal

  • November 15,1988 - February 15, 1989






OUTCOME:

The Ending of a ten year regime

  • 53,753 wounded

  • 415,932 sick

  • 14,453 killed


PARALLELS

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Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini

Russians in Afghanistan

1979-1989

Shorawi

Soviets

Roussi

Russians

"The end, the offical end, would come first in April 1978 with the communist coup d'etat..." (p.36)

Refers to the death of Mohammad Daud when he is overthrown by the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan.

"and then in December 1979, when Russian tanks would roll into the very same streets where Hassan and I played, bringing the death of the Afghanistan I knew..." (p. 36)

Babrak Kamal, head of the Afghan government, needed military support to help keep him in power. Sent in 85,000 Russian soldiers to Afghanistan.

1989: “That was the year that the Shorawi completed their withdrawal from Afghanistan. It should have been a time of glory for Afghans. Instead, the war raged on, this time between Afghans, the Mujahedin, against the Soviet puppet government of Najibullah, and Afghan refugees kept flocking to Pakistan” (p183-184).
In 1988, peace was established and Soviet Troops started pulling out of Afghanistan. The last troops leave in 1989, but civil war continues.Mujahedin pushes to overthrow Najibullah


QUESTIONS


1. In Chapter 10, Amir and Baba are refugees fleeing from the Soviet occupied Kabul to Pakistan and later starts a new life in America. If America was under occupation of another power and you were forced to be a refugee, what would you pack in your bag/suitcase? (maximum of 5 items).

2. What are some of the positive and negative aspects of being a refugee? If there was a war in the United States and you had the option to leave your home, would you leave? Where are some safe places that you would go?

3. Back in Kabul, Baba was a wealthy man with a great reputation. When he is settled in America, Baba works at a gas station in a country where he no longer holds his reputation. Many refugees who were doctors and lawyers in their homeland no longer hold their economic status when they resettle to America. Do you think that this is fair?


References:

(1) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. (2012). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1499983/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan

(2) Why did the Soviet Union Invade Afghanistan. (2012). In e-Ternational Relations. Retrieved from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/01/03/the-soviet-union%E2%80%99s-last-war/

(3) Babrak Karmal. (2012). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/312510/Babrak-Karmal

(5) Russian Invasion of Afghanistan. (2012). In History Learning. Retrieved from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/russia_invasion_afghanistan.htm